A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein. Thrombosis is a term for a blood clot occurring inside a blood vessel. A common type of venous thrombosis is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg. If the thrombus breaks off (embolizes) and flows towards the lungs, it can become a pulmonary embolism (PE), a blood clot in the lungs.
An inflammatory reaction is usually present, mainly in the superficial veins and, for this reason this pathology is called most of the time thrombophlebitis. The inflammatory reaction and the white blood cells play a role in the resolution of venous clots.
Physical methods of prophylaxis may be divided into several categories, including graduated compression stockings (GCS), intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPC), foot pumps, and combinations of foot and leg compression devices. GCS are stockings that have a higher pressure at the ankle than in the calf or thigh in order to provide a pressure profile that encourages blood flow out of the leg.
The average pressure at the ankle is approximately 18 mmHg, which gradually decreases to approximately 8 mmHg in the thigh. These devices have been shown to decrease venous diameter slightly, which helps prevent venous distention, particularly when the limb is in the dependent position.
venous thrombosis symptoms
Deep vein thrombosis signs and symptoms can include:
- Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there may be swelling in both legs.
- Pain in your leg. The pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or a soreness.
Deep vein thrombosis may sometimes occur without any noticeable symptoms.
photos: venous thrombosis
Recommendations for those without cancer include anticoagulation (stopping further blood clots from forming) with dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban rather than warfarin or low molecular weight heparin.